The ancient Greeks developed a kind of logic still used today called a syllogism * . A syllogism consists of two parts: the premise * and the conclusion. The premise is the fact or facts we know. In our example above, we saw that our room became dark. Looking at our watch we saw that it was in the evening. These are facts. There are usually several facts or premises in a syllogism. From these facts you can draw one or more conclusions.
When we look at the facts and try to draw conclusions, we sometimes make a mistake. This is called a fallacy * . In order to avoid making mistakes, people study and classify fallacies.
They give them funny names like "Red Herring" * , "Faulty Appeal to Authority", and "Circular Reasoning". Visit the Fallacy Detective site for a short list of fallacies. Learn to recognize fallacies and use this knowledge when other
people are trying to convince you of something. You will be surprised how many fallacies you can find in the news, on television and in advertising.
What does it mean to "know" something? Sometimes we can be 100% sure our conclusion is true if the facts we base it on are true. Are we sure that our facts are true? Do we have all the facts? Most situations in life are not simple. We don't have all the facts. We have to guess and we cannot be 100% sure we are right. When we are 100% sure we are right, this is called "deduction" * . When we guess, this is called "induction" * . If we always had to be 100% sure, we could not make important decisions, so induction is a big part of life.
Did you ever meet a very smart person who made big mistakes? Logic is important, but it is not everything we need to be successful. Wisdom * is much more important than logic. Wisdom is knowing which questions to ask... which path to take... how to tell good from evil. Proverbs 3:5 says, "Trust in the LORD with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding." God gave us minds with which to think, but we must always remember that we are part of creation and our understanding is limited.
||The Fallacy Detective: Thirty-Eight Lessons on How to Recognize Bad Reasoning, 2009 Edition
By Nathaniel & Hans Bluedorn / Christian Logic
Get more fallacies and more cartoons in this 2nd Edition of The Fallacy Detective! For ages 12 through adult, learn to recognize the fallacies you see every day, including Red Herring, Ad Hominem, Tu Quoque, Straw Man, loaded question, equivocation, circular reasoning, either-or, generalization, analogy, propaganda, and others, including two new for this 2009 edition: special pleading and slippery slope fallacies. Original cartoons, as well as Dilbert, Calvin & Hobbes, and Peanuts, illustrate many of the fallacies perfectly, while the text provides additional examples. Exercises and "The Fallacy Detective Game" provide fun ways to really remember what you've learned! 212 pages, softcover. Answer key included.
||The Thinking Toolbox: Thirty-five Lessons That Will Build Your Reasoning Skills
By Nathaniel Bluedorn & Hans Bluedorn / Christian Logic
When is it dumb to argue? Do your students know the five rules of brainstorming? Who has a good reason to lie? This entertaining and enlightening book turns logic from dry to delightful as it equips kids with tools for critical thinking, developing opposing viewpoints, and scientific investigation. Features end-of-chapter exercises and an answer key. Ages 13 and up. 234 pages, softcover from Christian Logic.
||Daily Warm-Ups: Logic, Level I
By Louis Grant Brandes / Walch Education
"Brothers and sisters have I none, but this man's father is my father's son." Can you explain this statement? Your students will develop lifelong skills of reasoning and common sense with fun-to-solve problems just like this! The 180 activities include word puzzles, diagrams, and deductive reasoning quizzes. (The man is speaking of his son.) Includes answer key. 207 reproducible pages, softcover from Walch.
From Word Central's Student Dictionary
by Merriam - Webster
(Pronunciation note: the schwa sound is shown by ə)
sound reasoning, connection (as of facts or events) in a way that seems reasonable
a brief form for stating an argument that consists of two statements
and a conclusion that must be true if these two statements are true
a statement taken to be true and used as a basis for argument or reasoning
something intended to distract attention from the real problem
a false or mistaken idea or the quality or state of being false
the drawing of a conclusion by reasoning; especially : reasoning in which the conclusion
follows necessarily from a general rule or principle or
a conclusion reached by such reasoning
any form of reasoning in which the conclusion, though supported by the premises,
does not follow from them necessarily
learning acquired over a period of time, ability to see beneath the surface of things,
good sense; and a wise attitude, belief, or course of action
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I love that "Brothers and sisters riddle", but I was taught it
this way: A man is looking at a picture of a young man, and he says:
brothers and sisters I have none, but this man's father (indicating man
in photo) is my father's son. Who is in the photograph?
it a little more "visual", I suppose.
i don't think that sounds right about "brothers and sisters I have
none. . ." love the site tho
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